Tirumala TEMPLE

Sthala Purana

It is believed that Lord Vishnu wished to be present on the seven holy hills for helping the humankind through trials and tribulations during the Kaliyuga. These seven hills are seven heads of Adisesha and are named :-

  1. Vrushabhadri Hill
    The first hill is known as Vrushabhadri. In Kruthayuga, near Thumbura Theertha in Tirumala there lived a demon named Vrushabhasura who was a devotee of Lord Siva. As he was an asura, he had inborn demonic quality in him and he used to daily cut his head and offer the same to Lord. By Lord Shiva’s grace, he would immediately get back his head. When Lord Shiva graced him and asked him to choose any boon, he said that he wanted to have a fight with Lord Siva. Lord Siva granted his wish and the fight between the devotee and the Lord Siva persisted for many days. Finally Vrushabhasura was defeated. But Before dying as a mark of his attaining salvation at this place he asked Lord Siva to name this hill by his name. Hence this Hill was named as Vrushabhadri.
  2. Anjanadri Hill
    Kesari, the king of Vanaras (monkeys), married Anjanadri. They were childless for many years. So Anjanadri went to hill near Akasha Ganga and did penance for several years. Later Vayu (wind god) offered fruit to Anjanadri. As a result of eating fruit offered by Vayu she gave birth to Lord Hanuman. As Anjanadri did penance on this hill hence named as Anjanadri.
  3. Neeladri Hill
    Nila Devi (or Neela Devi) is the third spouse of Lord Vishnu, the other two being Sri Devi and Bhu Devi. In Paramapadam (Sri Vaikuntham) Sri Devi is seated to the right of the Lord, and Bhu Devi and Nila Devi to His left. The Veda sings the glory of Goddess Nila in Nila Suktam.

    First devotee who offered her hair to god is Neela Devi. Lord Shrinivasa named this hill by her name as Neeladri. When Lord Shrinivasa was hit by a Shepard on his head, a small portion of his scalp becomes bald. There was no hair growth over that place and this was noticed by Gandharva princess, Neeladevi. She felt such a handsome face should not have any defects. Immediately she slices a portion of her hair and implants it on his scalp with her powers. As hair is considered as the most beautiful aspect of women, Lord Shrinivasa notices her sacrifice and he said all the hair offered to him by devotees in Tirupathi belongs to Neeladevi. Offering our hair to god is considered as symbol of leaving our ego. The word “Talanelalu” is also came from her name.
  4. Garudadri Hill
    As we all know Garuthmantha (Vahana of Lord Vishnu) killed his cousins (Kadruvas children, snakes). After killing the snakes to wash away his sins, he offered prayers to Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu was pleased by his prayers and came before Garuthmantha. Garuthmantha asked Lord Vishnu to allow him to come back to Vaikuntham. Lord Vishnu said he will be coming as a Swayambu on the Seven Hills and asked him to stay there in the form of a hill. This hill is called by his name as Garudadri.
  5. Seshadri Hill
    Most important peak among the Saptagiris is Seshadri. Seshadri is named after Adisesha, divine Serpent on whom Lord Vishnu rests. Thus story behind this hill. During Dwapara Yuga, Vayu (wind god) reached Vaikuntham to visit Lord Vishnu. Adisesha did not allow him inside as Lord Vishnu was resting with his spouse Lakshmi Devi. Vayu was not ready to return without visiting Lord Vishnu, and they started to argue with each other. Lord Vishnu himself came to them, but they still continued the argument, that one is superior to the other. Finally Lord Vishnu said Adisesha should hold the Anadha Shikara, one of the peaks of Meru Mountain and Vayu should try to blow off Adisesha from Meru Mountain.
  6. Narayanadri Hill
    Narayana Maharishi wanted to do Penance to see Lord Vishnu. He asked Lord Brahma to show an appropriate place where there will not be any disturbances for his Penance. Lord Brahma showed him a place where he did Penance for Lord Vishnu. Lord Vishnu was pleased by his prayers, appeared before Maharishi. Narayana Maharishi asked Lord Vishnu to provide him a boon so that the hill will be popular by his name. Hence this hill is named as Narayanadri.
  7. Venkatadri Hill
    Lord Shrinivasa resides on this Hill. The sacred temple of Sri Venkateshwara is located on the seventh peak, Venkatadri, which lies on the southern banks of Sri Swami Pushkarini.

    The sacred spot on the hill is 2,800 feet above sea level is known as Thirumala, the abode of Lord Venkateshwara. The hill forms part of the Eastern Ghats and is also known as Venkatachala and Seshachala. It is said that the Eastern Ghats on this side along with their curves, heights and falls which resemble the serpent Adisesha and that the seven hills of Tirupathi are its seven heads and Ahobalam where Lord Narasimha Moorthi is worshipped, representing the Centre of Adisesha, and Srisailam representing the tail end of Adisesha. That is why Tirumala is called Seshachala. According to the legends, this has been a sacred place in all the four yugas, and was known as Vrishabhachala in the Kruthayuga, Anjanachala in the Trethayuga, Seshachala in the Dwaparayuga and Venkatachala in the present Kaliyuga.

    It is believed that the idol of the presiding deity Lord Venkateshwara has been present here and worshiped since the beginning of the Kaliyuga (the last of the four Yugas comprising the Mahayuga mentioned in the Sanskrit scriptures) and will remain here till this Yuga ends.

    According to the legend, Tirumala was originally called “Adivarahakshetra” (dwelling place of Sri Bhu Varaha Swamy). According to Brahmapurana, it is Lord Sri Bhu Varaha Swamy who granted land to Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy on his request to reside in the sacred Seven Hills. As an appreciation and good gesture, Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy had gifted the privilege of first darshan and first naivedyam to Lord Sri Bhu Varaha Swamy. Thus as per the tradition, it is imperative for all the pilgrims to have darshan of Sri Bhu Varaha Swamy before visiting Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy.

    On the chest of the Lord, Lakshmi Devi Image is imprinted. Every Thursday during “Nijarupa Darshanam” the lord will be decorated with Sandalwood. While removing this Sandalwood the Mold of Lakshmi Devi will be embedded on the sandalwood paste and this item is offered for sale.


According to the legends, this has been a sacred place in all the four yugas, and was known as

1. Vrishabhachala in Kruthayuga

2. Anjanachala in Tretayuga

3. Seshachala in Dwaparayuga

4. Venkatachala in present Kaliyuga

  1. According to Kruthayuga
    In Kruthayuga, near Thumbura Theertha in Tirumala there lived a demon named Vrushabhasura who was a devotee of Lord Siva. As he was an asura, he had the inborn demonic quality in him and he used to daily cut his head and offer the same to Lord. Srihari Vishnu appeared before Vrishabhasura and asked him the reason for his austerity. The demon said that he wanted to fight Vishnu. Agreed and dreadful fight ensued. In the end, Vishnu used his Sudarshana Chakra to annihilate Vrishabhasura.

    Finally Vrushabhasura was defeated. But Before dying as a mark of his attaining salvation at this place he asked Lord Siva to name this hill by his name. So this hill is called by his name as Vrushabhadri.
  2. According to Trethayuga,
    Kesari, the king of Vanaras (monkeys), married Anjanadri. They were childless for many years. So Anjanadri went to a hill near Akasha Ganga and did penance for several years. Later Vayu (wind god) offered fruit to Anjanadri. As a result of eating fruit offered by Vayu she gave birth to Lord Hanuman. As Anjanadri did penance on this hill it is called as Anjanadri. Hanuman Statue marks Anjanadri
  3. According to Dwapara Yuga
    During the Dwaparayuga, Vayudeva (the Wind God) went to Vaikuntham to pay his obeisance to Lord Sri Vishnu. The Lord was reclining in the company of Maha Lakshmi and the doorway was guarded by Adisesha. Vayudeva was very annoyed when Adisesha prevented him from entering Sri Vishnu’s holy abode resulting in a fierce battle between them.

    When Lord Vishnu intervened, each was boasting of his superior valour and supreme might. To test who was stronger, the Lord suggested that Adisesha should encircle the Ananda hill, an off-shoot of the Meru Mountain on its northern side, while Vayudeva should blow hard to dislodge the Ananda hill from Adisesha strangle hold. The contest waxed furiously, and as the World trembled, Brahma, Indira and the other deities prevailed upon Adisesha to yield victory to Vayudeva for the welfare of the world.

    Obliging them, Adisesha released his hold on the hill, with the result; Adisesha and the Ananda hill were together blown away to the banks of the river Swarnamukhi. As Adisesha was crestfallen over his defeat, Lord Brahma and the others appeased him by saying that he would be integrated with the hill Venkatadri and would become the abode of Lord Vishnu. Adisesha then metamorphosed into the vast Seshadri hill range, while his hood manifested itself into Venkatadri, the abode of Lord Sri Venkateshwara. Thus in Dwapara Yuga the holy hill was known as Seshachala or Seshadri hill.
  4. During Kali Yuga,
    Narada went to the banks of Ganga where he saw Bhrigu Maharishi performing a Yagna. Bhrigu maharishi was unable to decide the benefactor of the Yagna that who could be offered the fruits of Yagna among Trimurthis. He went to Satyalokam and found that Lord Brahma was busy chanting Vedas, uttering names of Narayana and looking at Saraswathi. He went to Kailasam and found that Lord Shiva was busy sporting with Goddess Parvathi. He went to Vaikuntham and found that Lord Vishnu and Goddess Lakshmi were relaxing unmindful of his visit.

    He became very angry and kicked Vishnu on his chest. Lord Vishnu immediately got up and massaged Rishi’s foot all the while enquiring whether he was hurt. Rishi was impressed by his composure and decided to dedicate the Yagna to Lord Vishnu. However, Goddess Lakshmi expressed it as an insult to her and was very angry over events which occurred and left Vaikuntham onto Earth to Karavirapura (Kolhapur) and started meditating.

    Lord Vishnu bore human form as Shrinivasa, left Vaikuntham, in search of Lakshmi, reached Tirumala Hills and started meditating. Lakshmi came to know about the condition of Shrinivasa and prayed to Siva and Brahma. Siva and Brahma then converted themselves into Cow and Calf and Goddess Lakshmi had handed over the cow and calf to Chola king ruling over Tirumala Hills at that time. The Cow would provide milk to Shrinivasa daily while it was taken for grazing. One day Cowherd witnessed this and tried to beat the Cow with staff but Lord Shrinivasa had borne the injury. Getting angered by this Shrinivasa had cursed the Chola king to become a Demon as dharma says Servants sin should be borne by Kings. The king prayed for mercy after which Shrinivasa said to him, that the King should take next birth as Akasaraja and should perform marriage of his daughter Padmavathi with Shrinivasa.

    Lord Shrinivasa went to his mother Vakula Devi on Tirumala hills and stayed there for a while. After curse Chola king took rebirth as Akasaraja and he had a daughter named Padmavathi who was born in the Padmapushkarini situated at present day Tiruchanur in Andhra Pradesh. Lord Shrinivasa married Padmavathi at present day Narayanavanam in Andhra Pradesh and will return to Tirumala Hills. After few months Goddess Lakshmi had come to know about the marriage of Shrinivasa with Padmavathi and went to Tirumala hills to question Shrinivasa. It is said that the Lord Srinivasan turns into Stone right when he was encountered by Lakshmi and Padmavathi. Lord Brahma and Shiva appear before the confused queens and explain the main purpose behind all the events - The Lord's desire to be on the 7 hills for the emancipation of mankind from the perpetual troubles of Kali Yuga. Goddesses Lakshmi and Padmavathi also turn into stone deities expressing their wish to be with their Lord always. Lakshmi stays with Him on His Chest on the left side while Padmavathi rests on His Chest's right side.

Description Of The Deity

The deity does not conform to the agamas (rules) for creating a deity, thus furthering the belief that the temple's deity is Swayambhu. The Dhruva bera stands approximately ten feet tall and stands a platform of about 18 inches. The platform follows a simple lotus design and the details of the any inscription on the platform are unknown to anyone except the temple's archakas (priests). The platform is usually covered in Tulsi leaves except on Thursday afternoon and during Friday Abhishekam.

The face of the deity has unique & exquisite features, with the nose neither flat nor prominent. The eyes are prominent and have the outline of 'namam' though it is not projected out of the deity. The eyes are partially covered with the namam made of pachakarpuram (raw camphor). The size, shape and details of the namam are governed by strict rules laid by the Vaikhanasa agamam. The deity has a self-manifested crown up to the forehead and jatajuta (curly hair) resting on the shoulder. The chest is estimated to be between 36 and 40 inches in width and the waist would be between 24 and 27 inches, though there has never been a formal measurement of these statistics. Since the upper body is bare, features of the chest are prominently seen with the main feature being the image of a sitting Sridevi carved on the right side of the chest. The image of Lakshmi is integral to the deity. The deity has 4 arms. The upper arms in the position to hold his weapons though the Chakram and Conch are not integral to the deity.

The removable Sudarshana Chakram is placed on the upper right arm while the Panchajanya - Vishnu's conch is placed on the upper left arm. The lower right arm is in the Varada Hasta pose - palms facing outward towards the onlooker to signal of boon offered as nature of the lord. The lower left arm is in the Katyavalambita pose - palm facing the lord with the thumb nearly parallel to the waist. The deity is seen with a dhoti worn waist downwards. Both the knees are slightly bent forward to indicate that the Lord is willing to come to the devotee's rescue. The shoulder of the lord has marks resembling scars made by constant wearing of bow and pack of arrows though the deity is not in the Tribhanga pose. Tirumala Dhruva bera has a number of ornaments as seen on the deity. The yagnopavitam (sacred thread) is seen on the bare chest of the lord running from the left shoulder to the right waist. Four sets of necklaces are seen on the deity. The deity also has a two-inch katibandham (waist band) running over the dhoti. The arms have armlets and the legs have ornaments near the ankle. The lord sports ear ornaments also. The lord has a coin necklace.


The Temple is constructed in Dravidian architecture and is believed to be constructed over a period of time starting from 300 AD.

  1. Medieval history
    The first recorded endowment was made by Pallava queen Samavai in the year 966 CE. She donated many jewels and two parcels of land (one 10 acres and other 13 acres) and ordered to use the revenues generated from that land to be used for the celebration of major festivals in the temple. The Pallava dynasty (9th century), the Chola dynasty (10th century), and Vijayanagara Pradhan’s (14th and 15th centuries) were committed devotees of Lord Venkateshwara. The temple gained most of its current wealth and size under the Vijayanagara Empire, with the donation of diamonds and gold. In 1517, Vijayanagara Emperor Krishnadevaraya, on one of his many visits to the temple, donated gold and jewels, is enabling the Ananda Nilayam (inner shrine) roofing to be gilded. After the decline of Vijayanagara Empire, leaders from states such as the Kingdom of Mysore and the Gadwall Samsthanam worshiped as pilgrims and offered ornaments and valuables to the temple. Maratha general Raghoji Bhonsle (died 1755) visited the temple and set up a permanent administration for the conduct of worship in the temple.
  2. Modern history
    After the dusk of Vijayanagara Empire, the temple went into the hands of Golconda in July 1656 and then it was under the French rule for a short period of time and under Nawab of Carnatic till 1801 CE. During the early 19th century the temple went under the rule of the East India Company, who leased the temple for auction to a tenant. The tenant had to pay a fixed amount to the East India Company by imposing taxes and fees for Sevas in Temple.

    In 1843 the East India Company transferred the Administration of Temple along with other Temples in Tirupathi to Mahants of Hathiramji Muth, which acted as Vicaranakartas. It was under the rule of Mahants for six generations until 1933 when Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams was formed as a result of the TTD Act in 1933. The Act of 1933 was superseded by Madras Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowment Act of 1951. Again in 1966, the temple was placed under direct control of Andhra Pradesh State Endowments Department, with Andhra Pradesh Charitable and Hindu Religious Institutions and Endowments act. In 1979, act of 1966 was rolled back with new Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams act, where temple administration was vested to a committee consisting of Executive officer, Chairman and two other members nominated by Government of Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Architecture
    • Dwarams and Parikrama
      There are three Dwarams (entrances) which lead to Garbhagriha from outside. Mahadwaram also known as padikavali is the first entrance which is provided through Mahaprakaram (outer compound wall). 50 feet, five storied Gopuram (Temple tower) is constructed over this Mahadwaram with seven Kalasams at its apex. Vendivakili (Silver Entrance) also known as Nadimipadikavali is the second entrance and is provided through SampangiPrakaram (Inner compound wall). A three storied Gopuram is constructed over Vendivakili with seven Kalasams at its apex. Bangaruvakili (Golden Entrance) is the third entrance which will lead into Garbhagriha. There are two tall copper images of the Dwarapalakas Jaya-Vijaya on either side of this door. The thick wooden door is covered with gold gilt plates depicting the Dashavathaaram of Vishnu. Or TEN INCARNATIONS OF LORD VISHNU.
    • Pradakshinams
      Circumambulation around Sanctum sanctorum in the temple or deities is called Pradakshinams. There are two circumbulation paths in the temple. The first one is area between Mahaprakaram and SampangiPrakaram. This path known as Sampangipradakshinam has many Mandapas, Dwajasthambam, Balipeetam, Kshetrapalika sila, prasadam distribution area etc. The Vimanapradakhinam is the second Pradakshinams, which circumbulates Ananda Nilayam Vimanam. This path has sub-shrines dedicated to Varadaraja and Yoga Narasimha, Potu (main kitchen), Bangaru Bavi (golden well), Ankurarpana Mandapam, Yagasala, Nanala (coins and Notla (Paper notes) Parkamani, Almarah of Sandal paste (Chandanapu Ara), cell of records, Sannidhi Bhashyakarulu, Lords’ hundi and the seat of Vishvaksena.
  4. Worshiping the Deity
    The temple follows "Vaikhanasa Agama" tradition of worship, which is believed to be revealed by Sage Vikhanasa and is propagated by his disciples Atri, Bhrigu, Marichi, and Kashyapa. Vaikhanasa is one of the principal traditions of Hinduism and primarily worships Vishnu (and his associated Avatars) as the Supreme God. This ancient text recommends six times puja (worship) a day for Vishnu, of which minimum one puja is mandatory. Rituals are classified as daily, weekly and periodical. The daily sevas in Temple(in order of occurrence) include Suprabhata Seva, Thomala Seva, Archana, Kalyanotsavam, Dolotsavam (Unjal Seva), Arjita Brahmotsavam, Arjita Vasantotsavam, Sahasra Dipalankarana Seva, Ekanta Seva. Weekly sevas of the Temple include Vishesha Pooja on Monday, Ashtadala Pada Padmaradhana on Tuesday, Sahasra Kalasabhishekam on Wednesday, Tiruppavada Seva on Thursday, Abhishekam and Nijapada Darshanam on Friday. There are no weekly sevas on Saturday and Sunday. Periodical rituals include Jyesthabhishekam, Aaniwara Asthanam, Pavithrotsavam, and Koil Alwar Tirumanjanam.
  5. Hundi (donation pot)
    As per legend, Meanwhile Lord Shrinivasa had to work out arrangements for his wedding. For the wedding he arranges loan from Lord Kubera. Lord Kubera credited money to Lord Venkateshwara (a form of the Lord Vishnu) for his marriage with Padmavathi. Shrinivasa sought a loan of huge amount of gold from Kubera and had Viswakarma; he informed to kubera that at the end of kali yugas he can repay it back completely. The divine architect, created heavenly surroundings in the Seshadri hills. Together, Shrinivasa and Padmavathi lived for all eternity while Goddess Lakshmi, understanding the commitments of Lord Vishnu, chose to live in his heart forever.

Do’s And Don’ts

Suggestions in the form of ‘Dos and Don’ts’ are displayed at various places in Tirupathi and Tirumala for the information of multitude of visiting pilgrims to the twin pilgrim centers.

  1. Do’s in Tirumala are as follows:
    • Offer prayers to your Ishta Devatha or Kula devatha before you start for Tirumala pilgrimage.
    • Book your travel and accommodation in Tirumala well in advance.
    • Bathe in the Swami Pushkarini and worship Sri Bhu Varaha Swamy temple before you go to worship Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy.
    • Bathe and wear clean clothes before you enter the sanctum shrine of Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy.
    • Concentrate on Lord Sri Venkateshwara Swamy inside the temple.
    • Observe absolute silence and chant “Om Namo Sri Venkatesaya”, inside the Temple.
    • Bathe in the Papavinasanam and Akasha Ganga tirthams in Tirumala.
    • Respect ancient customs and traditions during visit to Tirumala.
    • Respect and promote religious sentiments among co-pilgrims.
    • Deposit your offerings only in the designated Hundi located inside the temple Prakarams.
    • Wear a tilak in accordance with your religious affiliation.
    • Follow the procedures of the temple and wait for your turn for the darshan of the Lord.
  2. Don’ts in Tirumala are as follows:
    • Don't Come to Tirumala for any purpose other than worshipping the Lord.
    • Don't carry much jewellery and cash with you.
    • Don't wear footwear in and around the premises of the temple.
    • Do not Approach touts for accommodation and darshan.
    • Do not Prostrate (sastanga danda pranamam) inside the temple.
    • Do not throw away the prasadam and teertham offered to you at the temple.
    • Do not Eat non-vegetarian food or consume liquor or other intoxicants and smoke while in Tirumala.
    • Do not wear any head guards such as helmets, caps, turbans and hats inside the temple premises.
    • Do not commit any act of violence or disturbance in the temple premises.
    • Do not Rush in for darshan instead of waiting for your turn in the queue.
    • Do not enter the temple; if according to custom or usage, you are prohibited to enter.
    • Do not wear flowers at Tirumala temple, as all flowers of the sacred Seven Hills are for the Lord only.
    • Do not encourage beggars.
    • Do not Spit or create nuisance inside the temple premises.
    • Carrying of weapons & ammunition to Tirumala is prohibited and pilgrims in possession of licensed weapons / ammunition should declare the same at Alipiri check point and submit all the concerned documents and failure to do so will be subject to strict legal action.


SL. No

Sevas / Poojas


Reporting Time

Seva Time

Persons Allowed



Vishesha Pooja


06:45 a.m.

07:30 a.m.




Ashtadala Padma Darshanam


05:00 a.m.

06:00 a.m.




Sahasra Kalasabhishekam


05:00 a.m.

06:00 a.m.




Tiruppavada Seva


05:00 a.m.

06:15 a.m.






03:00 a.m

03:30 a.m




Civet Vessel


03:00 a.m.

03:30 a.m.




Musk Vessel


03:00 a.m.

03:30 a.m.




Nijapada Darshan


05:00 a.m.

05:30 a.m.




Vastralankara  Seva


03:00 a.m.

03:30 a.m.




Theppotsavam (Annual)

500.00 per day.

18:00 hrs/Five days a year



Vasanthotsavam (Annual)


13:00 hrs/ March or April



Padmavathi Parinayam (Annual)


16:00 hrs/ May



Abhideyaka Abhishekam (Annual)


07:00 hrs/ June






18:00 hrs/ July



Koil Alwar Thirumanjan, am (4 times in a year)


08:00 hrs/ Four times a year (on Tuesdays before Ugadi, Anivara, Asthanam, Srivari Brahmotsavam and Vaikunta Ekadasi)



Pavithrotsavam (Annual)


08:00 hrs/ August


Arjitha Sevasa

Arjitham means Darshan or Seva to the Lord on payment of a fee as noted by the Temple Management. Admission to any particular seva on payment of a fee is known as “Amantranotsavam”.

    The Agamas in general are revered along with the Vedas as primary Hindu scriptures. All of the Agamas elucidate the science of ritual, but the uniqueness of "Vaikhanasa Agama" is that it provides more detail information on the performance of ritual, both at the temple and at home.

    The "Vaikhanasa Agama" exists in two parts. The first part deals with rituals which are performed at the temple and to the presiding deity. The second part deals with purification ceremonies which priests must undergo in order to qualify to serve in the temple.

    "Vaikhanasa Agama" was written by Sage Vikhanasa, is considered as one among four main "Vaishnava agamas". Marichi, Bhrigu, Kashyapa and Atri, the four disciples of Sage Vikhanasa who spread the essence of Vaikhanasa Agama across the world.

    The daily, weekly, monthly and annual Arjitham sevas or festivals which are performed in the famous hill shrine of Lord Venkateshwara at Tirumala are as per the recommendations of Vaikhanasa Agama over several centuries.

    The Vaikhanasa Agama recommends six times puja a day viz. Prathyusham which promotes the development of healthy population, Pratahkala which promotes Japa and Homa, Madhyahna in the promotion of the kingdom, Aparahna which brings about the destruction of evil doers, Sayankala which leads to greater and increased agricultural production and Nisi aradhana which develops the cattle population. As it is not always possible to perform six pujas a day in a temple, the same agama also recommends minimum one puja in the day.
  2. Shatkalam VA Thrikalam VA Dwikalam Ekakalam VA Pujanam Deva Devasya
    In Tirumala at present three pujas are performed, one in the morning in conjunction with Thomala Seva which is open to public, another abridged puja in Madhyahna (in the afternoon) and third one at night which is strictly a private one in which the archakas, the paricharakas and the Acharya purushas of the temple takes part.

    The temple administration of Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams (TTD) performs daily Arjita sevas to the presiding deity as a matter of divine exercise and also allows Grihastas (pilgrims) as partners in the exercise as a token of involvement of the devout service.
    On any day the Arjitham sevas which are performed to the presiding deity of Lord Venkateshwara commences with Suprabhatam, followed by Thomala, Archana and finally concludes with the Ekanthaseva (not open to pilgrims). However after Archana some Arjitham sevas are also performed to the processional deity of Lord Venkateshwara, also popularly known as “Malayappa Swamy” which includes, Kalyanotsavam, Arjita Brahmotsavam, Dolotsavam, Vasantotsavam and Sahasra Dipalankarana seva.
    • Suprabhatam
    • Archana
    • Thomala Seva
    • Ekantha Seva
    During the week days, each day has a specific ritual of worship which has religious significance. Such sevas are called Weekly Sevas.
    • Vishesha Puja (Monday)
    • Ashtadala Pada Padmaradhana (Tuesday)
    • Sahasra Kalasabhishekam (Wednesday)
    • Tiruppavada Seva (Thursday)
    • Abhishekam-Vastralankara Seva-Nija Pada Darshanam (Friday)
    Abhishekam-Vastralankara Seva-Nija Pada Darshanam (Friday)
    • Theppotsavam: or float festival 5 days a Year (March)
    • Vasantotsavam : 3 days a year (March or April)
    • Padmavathi Parinayam: 3 days a year (May)
    • Abhideyaka Abhishekam: 3 days a year (June-Annual)
    • Pushpa Pallaki : (July)
    • Pushpa Yagam: (November)
    • Koil Alwar Thirumanjanam :( 4 times in a year)
    • Pavithrotsavams :- 3 days a year (August)
    The tickets for all the Arjita sevas and festivals are sold in one month advance for the benefit of the devotees to arrange their visit and participate in the holy event in the Srivari Temple.

Teerthas In Tirumala

Sacred epics informs that every stone, tree, sand particle, air, birds, animals dwelling in the sacred Seshachala ranges which is the house of world famous hill shrine of Lord Venkateshwara is manifested with divinity.

According to Brahma Purana and Skanda Purana there are about 66 crores of holy tirthams in the green cover of Seshachala ranges. From the epic ages till today the holy teertham of Tirumala are famous for their sacredness and divinity. Almost all the sacred water bodes hold fantastic legends and stories of salvation. In fact these legends are the driving force which leads lakhs of pilgrims to this temple town each day even today since ages. However these sacred tirthams are classified as Dharmaratiprada tirthams, Gnanaprada tirthams, Bhaktivairagyaprada tirthams and Muktiprada tirthams.

    The holy dip in these teertham expected to transform the person to lead a moral life combined with spiritual discipline which is the very foundation to obtain salvation. As per the Puranas there are about 1008 holy torrents in the first category of teertham.
    Man is on the quest to obtain the best for himself. Jnana is the path of knowledge, wisdom, introspection and contemplation. It involves deep exploration of the nature of our being systematically exploring and setting aside false identities. A dip in the Gnanaprada tirthams is believed to be boon to this path of wisdom to pilgrims. These are 108 in number. They are: Manu, Indira, Vasu, Rudra(11 in number), Aditya(12 in number), Prajapati (9 in number), Ashwini, Sukhra, Varuna, Jahnavi, Kapeya, Kanwa, Agneya, Narada, Soma, Bhargava, Dharma, Yagna, Pasu, Ganeshwara, Bhaumaswa, Paribhadra, Jagajadyahara, Viswakallola, Yama, Baraspatya, Kamaharsha, Ajamoda, Janeshwara, Instasiddhi, Karmasiddhi, Vata, Jedumbara, Karthikeya, Kubja, Prachetasa(10 in number), Garuda, Sesha, Vasuki, Vishnuvardhana, Karmakanda, Punyavriddhi, Runavimochana, Parjanya, Megha, Sankarshana, Vasudeva, Narayana, Deva, Yaksha, Kala, Gomukha, Pradymna, Aniruddha, Pitru, Arsheya, Vaishwadeva, Swadha, Swaha, Asti, Anjaneya, Suddhodaka, Astha Bhairava(8 in number). All together 108 tirthams.
    Puranas state that these are more sacred than the Gnanaprada tirthams. A dip in these tirthams will provide renunciation from the materialistic way of life and leads to bhakti yoga. These are 68 in number. They are: Chakra, Vajra, Vishwaksena, Pancha Yudha, Halayuda, Narasimha, Kashyapa, Manmadha, Brahma, Agni, Gautami, Daiva, Devam, Vishwamitra, Bhargava, Ashtavakra, Durarohana, Bhairava, Meha, Pandava, Vayu, Asti, Markandeya, Jabali, Valabhilya, Jwarahara, Vishahara, Lakshmi, Rushi, Shatananda, Suteekshaka, Vaibhandaka, Bilwa, Vishnu, Salva, Sarabha, Brahma, Indira, Bharadwaja, Akashaganga, Prachetana, Papavinasanam, Saraswatha, Kumaradhara, Gaja, Rushyashringa, Tumburu, Dashavathaaram (10 in number by the name of different avatars of Lord Vishnu), Halayudi, Saptarshi (7 in number after the name of saptarshi), Gajakona, viswaksena, Yudhasarasti.
    Mukti means liberation of the senses from the clutches of the mind. It is enlightenment or a state of self-realization of the soul through Bhakti. A bath in the Muktiprada tirthams will gives us salvation. They are seven in number and considered to be the holiest among all the 66crore tirthams.
    • Swamy Pushkarini
      As per the temple legend Swami Pushkarini was originally in Vaikuntham and belonged to Sri Maha Vishnu. It was set on Earth by Garuda, for the sport of Sri Venkateshwara. It is adjacent to the Sri Venkateshwara temple. As the 66 crore tirthams these tirthams are not identified it is believed that one holy dip in Swamy Pushkarini teertham which is adjacent to hill shrine of Tirumala temple is equal to having taken bath in all these tirthams. Festivals are being carried out every year for these tirthams on the auspicious time as decided in the Shastra’s.

      For this sacred teertham of Swamy Pushkarini, Mukkoti Dwadashi, the twelfth fortnight of Dhanurmasa is considered to be auspicious. Gogarbham or Pandava Teertham: Suddha Dwadashi Sunday in Vrishabha month or Bahula Dwadashi day falling on Tuesday is considered auspicious.
    • Papavinasanam
      Sunday with Sapthami tithe in Aswayuja Month or Dwadashi day in unison with the star Uttarabhadra
    • Akashaganga
      Full moon day in the month of Mesha in unison with Chitra Nakshatra
    • Tumburu
      Full moon day in the month of Meena (Pisces) with Uttara Phalguni Nakshatra is considered to be auspicious
    • Kumara Dhara
      Magha Purnima in the month of Kumbha is considered to be auspicious to take bath in this teertham.
    • Ramakrishna
      Full moon day in the month of Makara (Capricorn) is considered to be divine for holy dip. Pilgrims visiting Tirumala make it a practice of taking their bath in these sacred torrents on the belief that it would wipe out all their sinful deeds.

Shila Thorana

Mythology related to the arch, linked to the famous Tirumala hills temple of Lord Venkateshwara, has three versions.

According to one version, the arch resembles the hood of a serpent, a conch (Sanskrit: Shank) and a discus (Sanskrit: chakra) – all symbols of worship in Hindu religion – and considered to be the source of the Idol of Lord Venkateshwara or Lord Balaji at the Tirumala hill temple.The second version is that the main deity in the Tirumala temple is of the same height as the height of the arch.

The third version is that Lord Vishnu, known as Balaji or Venkateshwara (the central deity of Srivaishnava tradition) at the Tirumala temple town, is supposed to have stepped his first foot down at a place called Padalu or Sreevaripadalu ( Divine foot prints) which is the highest point of Tirumala hills, the second step at the location of the arch.

Thereafter, the next step is stated to have been placed where his idol is now worshipped in the temple at Tirumala

In the 1980 excavations were carried out to identify the geological fault in the Tirumala Hills, geologists found this rare geological formation of the rock arch which has two dissimilar sets of rocks with a connecting thin link. They assessed geological age of the rock arch at 2.5 million years. Formation of the arch is attributed to intensified weathering and erosion of stream action which has withstood the torque of nature. This is a rare geological fault which is technically called in the geological idiom as ‘Eparchaean Unconformity’.

The natural geological arch has two distinct physiographical regions – southwest upland and northeast lowland. The Tirupathi hills, at the foot of a picturesque range of hills, are known by several names such as 'Seshachala', 'Venkatachala' and 'Balaji'. The geological formations are categorized under four heads namely, the (1) Archeans (the gneisses), (2) the Eparchaean unconformity (Quartzose sandstones overlying the granite with a distinct unconformity), (3) Puranas (formation of Cuddapah group well developed in the valley) and (4) Quaternary deposits. The Tirumala hills essentially of Precambrian period are composed of sedimentary rocks – quartzites and intercalated shales, which are specified as geological, stratigraphically nomenclature of Nagari quartzites.

The hill ranges of the Tirumala rise to a height of 900 m (3,000 ft.) (At Tirumala) from the average height of 150 m (490 ft.) in the plains at Tirupathi. The steep scarp of the hill ranges depicts unconformity in its topographic, structural and denudational features, which is the Eparchian Unconformity.

The sedimentary thickness of the Cuddapah basin is of the order of 12 km (7.5 miles) with volcanic sequences in the form of sills and dykes. A prominent Eparchaean Unconformity of the formation resting on the Archaean peninsular gneissic complex is noted. Rocks of Cuddapah Super group including Kurnool Group are the prominent feature of the basin.

Specifically, the arch's origin is attributed to two schools of thought namely, a) it could be the effect of a wave action from oceanic transgression or intensified climatic settings and corrosion and b) it may have been naturally carved out of quartzite.

The best time to visit the arch is between 6 A.M. and 8 A.M., fog permitting. There is a well maintained garden in front of the arch should visitors wish to rest or wait until fog clears. Sunset is also a good time to visit, as the arch looks even more striking and mystifying in the light of the setting sun. Seen in the light of a full moon the arch is said to be "ethereally beautiful."


Alipiri is the place at foot of seven hills in Tirupathi, the pilgrim city of Sri Venkateshwara Swami, in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. One Footstep away and two road ways, one up and one down, leading to Tirumala through seven hills starts from Alipiri and hence its name "The Gate Way to Tirumala Venkateshwara Temple"

In older days pilgrims used to climb all the seven hills only through the stepped way on foot, as there was no other option. Hence the pilgrims came from long distances used to take rest for some time here, cooked their food, consume it here. After taking rest they again started to climb the steps to the temple.

Currently all the stepped way is covered with roof to protect the pilgrims from sun light and rain. The lights are also provided. Special privilege of darshan is provided to the pilgrims who climb the mountain on foot for the visit of the god.

  1. Srivari Padala Mandapam
    Srivari Padala Mandapam is a temple dedicated to Lord Venkateshwara at Alipiri. The presiding deity is referred to Padala Venkateshwara Swamy.[1] As per legend Lord Venkateshwara after Ekantha seva at Tirumala will come visit his spouse Padmavathi at Tiruchanur, down the hill through Alipiri Steps path and will leave his footwear at this place and hence the name "Padala Mandapam, Devotees who are on Tirumala Yatra from Tirupathi will offer prayers here first by carrying "Srivari Padukalu"(believed to be footwear worn by Lord Venkateshwara himself) on their heads. The temple comes under Sri GovindarajaSwamy Temple circle and is currently administered by Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams.
  2. Foot Steps
    There is an ancient footsteps path to Tirumala which starts from Alipiri known as Alipiri Metlu. The Devotees to fulfil their Vow to Lord Venkateshwara will trek on this path to reach Tirumala on foot from Tirupathi. It consists of a total 3550 Steps which covers a total distance of 12 km. There are four Gopuram (Temple Towers) on the way. It is completely roofed and passes through seven hills which are part of Seshachala Hills.
  3. Metlotsavam
    Metlotsavam is the festival which is to be held once in three months, to the Alipiri footsteps leading to Tirumala. It is organized by Dasa sahitya project Under Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams. The festival includes group of devotees taking a trek to Tirumala singing spiritual songs.

Srivari Paadulu

According to Vedas/Puranas ‘Srivari Padalu’ is the place where Lord Venkateshwara Swamy first set his feet on one of the seven hills namely ‘Narayanagiri’. The footprint of the Lord is available in this place to the pilgrims with restricted access by T.T.D so that they cannot touch the foot prints. Pilgrims have to climb 300 odd steps to reach this divine spot from where a beautiful view of the temple town ‘Tirumala’ is very delightful to watch.

The Divine Presense Of Venkateswara In Kaliyuga

The divine ways of Venkateshwara during the ages of Krita, Tretha, and Dwapara yugas were described. Now his sportive mien in the age of Kali maintains silence. Men see him only as on idol fit for worship. The divine abode descended from Vaikuntham remains invisible. Man in the age of Kali builds another for him. All men believe that he is an idol. He shall own all his divine powers of creating and marring but his power of speech. In particular during the age of kali his charity is more than ever in witness. Excepting that his temple is artificial; his darshan burns away all sins. It is only rarely that Venkateshwara dons a visible form. This way Venkateshwara with Lakshmi glorifies in the age of kali. He will manifest to those who devoutly offer charity, though meager, and to those who worship him even casually. He will be pleased enough to grant their wishes of any for merely undertaking a pilgrimage to Venkatadri. Though he is divine, he will be wandering like an earthly being. He will be enjoying human pleasures heartily. Men celebrate his glory through a number of ceremonial festivities.

In the age of kali, even the gods come down to worship the Lord and, having bathed in Swaamipushkarini, they make offerings to the Lord. Unseen by the human eye, they eat the food which has been offered to the Lord. They will be worshipping him sincerely.

They even regret that they have not been born humans. They envy the humans that their desires are easily blessed by the Lord to fruition. In this age of kali, Venkateswara’s reputation spreads unusually as people of All creeds and castes become devoted to Lord Venkateshwara.

Who fulfills their wishes almost effortlessly. They take part in the celebration of the Lord’s glory, not only Indians but foreigners also visit this shrine in large numbers and all obtain their desires fulfilled, blessed to return to their home in full satisfaction. Though it is an unearthly hill, Venkatadri looks like a natural, Earthly hill. Even people belonging to different religions become devotees of this Lord. The undevoted also turn into devotees on the inspiration drawn from the devotees. Concrete results are bestowed on those who devoutly wish for them. Thus in Kaliyuga Venkateshwara glorifies.

Therefore devotion to Venkateshwara is like an ornament. To those who are stricken by the curses of kali there is no refuge other than Lord Venkateshwara. There is no God on earth like Venkateshwara; there is no tirthams like Swaamipushkarini. In the age of kali, Venkateshwara earns wealth. Though he is self-sufficient, he performs in this fashion for the world’s sake. He Amuses himself saying that he would grant wishes only for those offering proper donations to him.

Time Line Of Venkateshwara

The timeline of Lord Venkateshwara and his marriage with Padmavathi can be correlated by the timeline of Vasudana son of Akasha Raja based on the Chandravamsha time lines

  • The story of the birth of Padmavathi.
    Akasharaja was ploughing land with a golden plough on the banks of Aarani, for the purpose of performing a Yagna or a sacrificial worship, when he found baby girl on a bed of lotus rising from beneath the earth. The king was amazed and, gladly accepting the girl, declared to his ministers that she was his daughter. Then an unbodied voice echoed, “O king! She is verily your daughter. Bring her up.” Akasharaja went to his palace and said to Dharanidevi, “God-given us and earth-born is this female child. See. She will be daughter to us who are childless.” He handed over the baby to Dharanidevi. As she was born in a lotus, hence she was named Padmini.
  • The story of the birth of Padmavathi.
    Dharanidevi, wife of Akasharaja, became pregnant after she had accepted Padmavathi: Time went by and in the tenth month of her pregnancy, at an auspicious time when the planet sun was in the Zodiac sign of Aries, she delivered birth of a son. Then the wind blew pleasantly gentle. On the twelfth day Jaatakarma was performed and the child was named Vasudaasa. The boy grew up like the moon in the light half of the month. Vasudaasa learned archery from his father, after his initiation into sacred duties called upanayanam. So the king became invincible by virtue of his having a valorous son.

    Hence we can correlate the time line of Padmavathi and Vasudana are in parallel. Also as per the timeline of Pandava Dynasty, the timeline of Vasudana is 1915 BC, as per the Puranas the just after the Shrinivasa Kalyana and death of Akasha Raja, there was a war between Tondamana (Brother of Akasha Raja) and Vasudana wherein Lord Shrinivasa fights for Vasudana and hence we can understand the time line of Shrinivasa Kalyana took place around 1915 BC

    As per the legend “The divine marriage of Sri Padmavathi and Sri Shrinivasa was held in a very grand way. After the marriage, seeing Akasha Raja preparing to return to his kingdom, Padmavathi was worried. Akasha Raja comforted Padmavathi and went back to his kingdom. Sri Shrinivasa informed to Brahma and Rudra that He is in marriage vow for 6 months. After completion of 6 months, He returns to the mountain for residing there. Here Shrinivasa is doing some leela on the pretext, following the marriage vow. “For the time being I will stay in Agastya ashrams.” Shrinivasa passed away the offering, like clothes, ornaments etc. to all the befitting people and asked them to return to their designated places. All of them followed the order of Shrinivasa. Lakshmi Devi prayed Shrinivasa for permission and went to Karaveerapuram for penance. Shrinivasa, with pained heart, consented her permission.”

    The timeline from Shrinivasa Kalyana and Lord Shrinivasa turning Stone was about 6 months in the period is approximately 1915 BC, and we also know that the Shrinivasa Kalyana took place on Vaishakha Shuddha Dashami in Vilambi naama Samvatsara. According to Drik Panchanga the Vilambi naama Samvatsara had occurred in the year.

The First Ever Temple For Sreenivasa

The First ever temple for Shrinivasa was built by Tondamana, this again brings us the to the fact that the timeline of Shrinivasa was around 1915 BC

  1. Shrinivasa instigates Tondaman to build the divine temple
    One day Tondamana came to see Venkateshwara who was delighted to see him and, embracing him, enquired of the business on which he came. Tondaman said, “I come to see you. I have no special purpose. Great sages and noble men say that you are the noblest of all described by the Vedas. Hearing this I come to worship you.” Hearing him, Shrinivasa expressed his sorrow over the death of Akasaraja and said to him, “I am made a family man by your brother, King Akasha, but I have no building to live in. I cannot bear the common talk that the son-in-law of King Akasha resides in another’s house. Dependence is woeful. Therefore build for me a house. In all the three worlds I do not find another person suitable to be remembered for such an act.” Hearing Shrinivasa as desire, Tondaman promised him to build for him a living house. Shrinivasa climbed up Seshachala along with Padmavathi on an auspicious day ruled by an auspicious star. On permission from Varaahaswaami, the land for building the house was settled to be south of Swaamipushkarini. He was told to build the temple facing east. The temple should have two domes, three compounds, Seven doorways and a main mast. The temple should be complete with aasthaanamandapam, yaagamandapam, cattle-shed, granary, flower house, a house for clothes, one for oil, one for ghee, one for eatables, one for ornaments and one for camphor and others such. It should be beautified with copper coverings and gold. Then Shrinivasa added, “In the past you had obtained a good reputation for building Sreethirtham and Bhoothirtham. Now build a stone building for me and prosper.”
  2. History of Tondaman’s past life
    Hearing Srinivaasa’s words, Tondaman in wonder asked him,“O lord! How Did I make water wells in the past? How did I manage it, in what from? Enlighten me.” Prayed by Tondaman in this fashion, Shrinivasa began to inform him of his past life. “In the past, a hermit called Vaikhaanasa heard the story of the incarnation of Krishna and, desiring to see Krishna’s form physically materialized, made very hard penance. God, being pleased with his penance, incarnated before him in the form of a cowherd or Gopala. Then the hermit said that he would worship God Krishna’s form. And to him God replied, “You should not worship Krishna’s form. You should worship the form of Shrinivasa. Go to Seshaachalam.

    There in an ant-hill dwells Shrinivasa. Worship him. On your way, one called Rangadaas meets you. He shall help you in your worship.” Having heard these words, the hermit Vaikhaanasa set out on his journey to Venkatadri. On the way, Rangadaas met him. With him he reached Venkatadri and worshipped Shrinivasa who was dwelling in the ant-hill. Rangadaas fetched flowers for his worship. Rangadaas dug a well to water the flower-garden he intended to raise. One day in the spring season, a Gandharva was engaged in amusing himself along with his wives in the waters of Swaamipushkarini. Rangadaas was watching them while the time for the worship passed by and flowers were delayed. The hermit was angry for the delay. But seeing the repentant Rangadaas, the hermit said again, “Do not fear, o Rangadaas! You came under an illusion by my will. As you are repentant, all will be well with you & you will leave this mortal coil here on the banks of this sacred Swaamipushkarini and get another birth as a son of Sudharma, by name Tondaman and rule the domain called Tondamandalam with great reputation. You will be devoted to me. Therefore, leave this body of yours here and now.” Obeying the Lord’s command, he left his body. You are that very Rangadaas. Then, as Rangadaas, you dug a water well for my flower garden. Now build a temple for me and be renowned."

Srinivaasa Enters The Temple Built By Tondaman

Tondaman, hearing his earlier birth’s story from Shrinivasa, cleaned the water well he dug in his earlier birth and built a structure high and diamond-studded, with the idols of the four deities and Garuda, and with a golden pot atop. He also laid a way with stairs for the convenience of the devotees who visited the place, for a length of eight miles. He provided roofed shelters and water wells along the way for pilgrims to rest and quench their thirst. When all this was done, Tondaman approached Shrinivasa and submitted to him saying, “Lord! As you wished, the temple is ready. Kindly enter your temple.” Shrinivasa in reply said to him, “I am pleased with your devotion. I am right now following you.” So saying, Shrinivasa followed him to the temple with gods like Indira, great hermits, Vedic chanting’s and music of instruments and Padmaavati, all following him. Tondaman led the way and entered the Lord into the temple. Shrinivasa made this Ananda- Nilayam to be built by Tondaman, his residence. As it creates Ananda to the people, it is reputed & known as Aananda-nilayam. Shrinivasa took Lakshmi who was seated in a lotus, into his own heart. Shrinivasa dwells in Aananda-nilayam with his left hand on his waist and his right showing his lotus-feet, but devoid his Shankham and Chakram. The posture indicates that this worldly life is but waist-deep for those who surrender themselves at his feet.

The Vaastu Of Tirumala Temple

There has been extensive scientific study conducted by Vaastu experts of the Tirumala temple. Below are some of unique findings & insights of the Vaastu aspects of Tirumala Temple

Astrological Aspects Of Tirumala Temple

Sri Vaishnava’s never considers Nava Grahas as moorthies to be worshiped. They are surely respected and there is no doubt about that. But never worships them. They worships only Srimannarayana for all their requirements and that is all (Saranagathi/prapatti). Nava Grahas serve to Lord Srimannarayana always. And they take the dust of the Srivaishnava devotees to their head. This can be read from the shloka of Lord